Special Collections

Department of Archives & Special Collections

James O. Eastland Collection<br /> MUM00117<br />

James O. Eastland Collection


MUM00117

Access Restrictions

Open for research. This collection is stored at an off-site facility. Researchers interested in using this collection must
contact Archives and Special Collections at least two business days in advance of their planned visit.

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PURL

http://purl.oclc.org/umarchives/MUM00117/

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Summary Information

Repository
University of Mississippi Libraries
Creator
Eastland, James Oliver, 1905-1986
Title
James O. Eastland Collection
ID
MUM00117
Date [bulk]
Bulk, 1941-1978
Date [inclusive]
1930-1978 (bulk 1941-1978)
Extent
1571.0 Linear feet
General Physical Description note
The entire Eastland Collection consists of 1,040 boxes and occupies 1,571 linear feet.
Location:
Library Annex
Abstract:
Correspondence, documents, publications, photographs, scrapbooks, and recordings from the congressional office of U.S. Senator
James O. Eastland of Mississippi. Also includes his personal correspondence, financial records, plantation records, and law
firm files.

Preferred Citation

James O. Eastland Collection, Archives and Special Collections, J.D. Williams Library, University of Mississippi

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Biographical Note

Early Life

James Oliver Eastland was born on 28 November 1904 in Doddsville, Mississippi. His father, Woods C. Eastland was an attorney
in Sunflower County and owned a 2,300-acre Mississippi Delta plantation. In 1905, Eastland’s parents moved back to the family
home in Forest, a town located in the hill country of Scott County, Mississippi.

Education and Early Career

James O. Eastland attended the public schools in Forest, the University of Mississippi (1922-24), Vanderbilt University (1925-26),
and the University of Alabama (1926-27). Admitted to the state bar in 1927 after reading law in his father’s office, he began
practicing law in Forest. A year later, the twenty-four-year-old Democrat won election to the Mississippi House of Representatives.
Eastland, Courtney C. Pace (who later became Senator Eastland’s Administrative Assistant), and Kelly J. Hammond became known
as the “Little Three,” floor leaders who supported Governor Theodore G. Bilbo’s progressive legislative proposals for funding
highways, free textbooks, and tuberculosis hospitals. Frustrated by the obstructionism of older, more powerful legislators
and urged by his father to concentrate on family, law, and farming, Eastland decided against running for reelection when his
term ended in 1932. He married Elizabeth Coleman, and two years later Eastland moved his family to Doddsville in order to
manage their Delta plantation. He also opened a law office in nearby Ruleville.

Temporary Appointment & First Two Elected Terms in the U.S. Senate

In June 1941, Pat Harrison, a U.S. Senator from Mississippi, died in office. Governor Paul B. Johnson, Sr. offered the post
to his political supporter Woods C. Eastland, who refused and suggested his son instead. James O. Eastland received the appointment
upon the condition that he not campaign for the seat during the upcoming special election. Only in Congress for eighty-eight
days, Eastland made a name for himself back home by leading the legislative fight to kill an announced Office of Price Administration
regulation that would have placed a price ceiling on cotton seed oil. Wall Doxey, a candidate handpicked by Senator Bilbo,
successfully won the special election. Eastland returned home, having maintained his promise not to compete in the special
election.

During the 1942 regular election, however, Eastland campaigned against Doxey by vehemently opposing Roosevelt’s New Deal programs.
Reared in a hill county and living in the Delta, Eastland bridged an important political divide among the state electorate.
Triumphing in the bitter election contest, Eastland earned the enmity of the senior senator from Mississippi, who refused
to participate in his junior colleague’s swearing-in ceremony. During his first two terms, Eastland’s views echoed those of
other southern Democrats – opposing civil rights, labor, and social welfare while supporting agricultural assistance programs
and the Democratic Party’s foreign policy. A Naval Affairs Committee trip to view the aftermath of World War II in Europe
inspired him to publicly urge the president to adopt a more lenient occupation policy in order to deter the spread of communism
into Western Europe. In 1948, Eastland ran unopposed for reelection.

Committee Membership

In 1944, right after his first election, Eastland received an appointment to four committees: Claims, Education and Labor,
Immigration, and Post Offices and Post Roads. The following year he dropped Education and Labor and added Judiciary, Naval
Affairs, and Territories and Insular Affairs. The reorganization of Congress in 1946 decreased the number of Senate committees,
and Eastland retained only his previous membership in the Judiciary while joining the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive
Department.

By 1953, Eastland became chairman of the Judiciary Committee’s Internal Security Subcommittee, retaining this position until
the Senate abolished the subcommittee in 1977. Created in 1950, the subcommittee investigated the administration, operation,
and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (also known as the McCarran Act) as well as other laws on espionage,
sabotage, and subversive activities. Over the course of its existence, this senate version of the House of Un-American Activities
Committee investigated the United Nations; treachery in the Departments of State and Defense; communist-tainted decisions
from the Supreme Court; U.S. foreign policy in Asia; the radio, television, and entertainment industries; newspapers; youth
groups; labor unions; educational organizations; the defense industry; civil rights activities; campus unrest; the illegal
drug trade; and the general scope of Soviet activity inside the United States.

Eastland assumed chairmanship of the entire Judiciary Committee in 1956. With jurisdiction over crime, judicial appointments,
federal courts and penitentiaries, civil liberties, constitutional amendments, antitrust matters, patents and copyright issues,
immigration and naturalization, and interstate compacts as well as several other matters, the Judiciary Committee handles
approximately sixty percent of all Senate legislation. During considerations of federal judicial nominees, Eastland scrupulously
honored any home state senator’s veto and received praise from his liberal colleagues for his fairness in committee proceedings
and the dispensation of autonomy, funds, and staff. For those nominees that the senator opposed, he simply delayed confirmation
hearings. The vast majority of judicial appointments, however, made a fairly quick passage through his committee. The Judiciary
Committee, meanwhile, was described as “the graveyard of civil rights legislation” as Eastland maintained a bottleneck that
killed over 120 civil rights bills. To ensure the passage of the major civil rights laws of the late 1950s and 1960s, the
Senate leadership manipulated matters so that the legislation bypassed the Judiciary Committee entirely. As one of his former
aides stated, “Senator Eastland understood power and its proper application better than anybody…[he] understood what it was
and how to use it properly and in the right degree. He never pounded a table, never screamed or hollered. He just got the
job done.” Wielding this power, Eastland eventually became known in Washington as simply “The Chairman.”

In addition to Internal Security, he also chaired Judiciary’s Immigration and Naturalization Subcommittee (1956-1978), the
Civil Rights Subcommittee, and the FBI Oversight Subcommittee. As chairman of the full committee, Eastland was an ex officio
member of all subcommittees and a regular member of Criminal Laws and Procedures; Separation of Powers; and Constitutional
Amendments subcommittees.

Eastland served on the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments from 1947 until 1951 when he transferred to
the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. At the time of his retirement in 1978, he was the second highest ranking Democrat
on that committee and chaired its Environment, Soil Conservation, and Forestry Subcommittee. Eastland’s record of support
for conservation issues was minimal, and he supported the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway despite warnings by environmentalists
that the project posed ecological hazards. The senator also held membership on three other subcommittees: Agricultural Production,
Marketing, and Stabilization; Agricultural Research and General Legislation; and Rural Development. His support for agricultural
subsidies gained Eastland a reputation as a friend of the farmer, particularly the cotton farmer. Journalists frequently noted
that until Congress capped individual subsidies at $50,000, Eastland himself received more than a $100,000 a year in cotton
price support payments for removing a portion of his fields from production.

The senator also served on the Select Committee on Small Business from 1955 until 1957 when he stepped down in order to devote
more attention to Judiciary. From 1953 until its termination in 1970, Eastland was a member of the Joint Committee on Immigration
and Nationality.

State and National Politics

Known as “the godfather of Mississippi politics” and called “Big Jim” by his fellow Mississippians, Eastland maintained a
political network across the state that he wielded in both state and national elections. A former aide ascribed his influence
as based upon an intense two-way loyalty between senator and supporters. Eastland, however, never demonstrated a similar loyalty
with his own national party, typically voting against the majority of his own party more often than not. In 1948, he supported
the Dixiecrat States Rights Party instead of his own Democratic ticket; he refused to endorse Lyndon Johnson in 1964; and
he played a major role in Mississippi’s support for Republican Richard M. Nixon in 1972. However, Eastland’s endorsement of
Jimmy Carter helped elect that fellow southern Democrat to the White House in 1976. As for state leadership, Eastland used
his influence to help elect Ross Barnett, Paul Johnson, Jr., and Bill Waller to the Governor’s Mansion. Even after his retirement,
politicians on the campaign trail still visited Eastland at his Sunflower County home seeking his endorsement.

Personality, Press, and Private Life

Eastland avoided the social circuit of Washington. He preferred to meet with his colleagues, liberal and conservative, after
hours in his own office over cigars and a glass of Chivas Regal. Afterwards, the senator went home to his family and read
detective novels. He regularly commuted to the Delta on weekends and holidays. Even the kindest judge would not rate him as
an eloquent orator, and Eastland was atypical among politicians in his reticent conversation and his tendency to shun publicity.

Eastland’s Last Three Campaigns

Eastland faced no opposition for his 1960 reelection. A white, first term Republican congressman, Prentiss Walker, challenged
the senator in 1966. Walker attempted to label his opponent as soft on integration by linking Eastland to presidents Kennedy
and Johnson. Eastland’s supporters pointed out that Walker had appointed a black man to the Air Force Academy. When another
Republican, Gil Carmichael, stepped into the 1972 campaign, the Nixon White House ignored the upstart politician. Eastland,
whose votes tended to support the Republican administration agenda had developed a strong working relationship with the president.
That year, one of the senator’s campaign advertisements simply read “When Jim Eastland talks, presidents listen.” Although
Eastland was victorious, Carmichael polled an impressive 39% of the votes.

President Pro Tempore

In 1972, the Senate elected Eastland as president pro tempore to fill the vacancy left by the death of Allen J. Ellender.
In the absence of the vice president, the Constitution provides for a president pro tempore to preside over the Senate. Since
World War II, tradition has dictated that the senior member of the majority party assumes the position. The president pro
tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, following the vice-president and the Speaker of the House. Twice,
Eastland ascended a notch in the succession — in 1973 when Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and again in 1974 after President
Richard M. Nixon’s resignation. When the Democrats are in the majority, the president pro tempore is an ex officio member
of that party’s leadership, attending its conference, policy committee, and steering committee meetings. As president pro
tempore, Eastland directed enforcement of rules governing the use of the Capitol and Senate office buildings and made appointments
to an assortment of national commissions (usually acting upon the advice of the majority and minority leaders). During joint
sessions of Congress, the president pro tempore shares presiding duties with the Speaker of the House. Eastland retained the
title of president pro tempore until his retirement.

Retirement

Eastland resigned from the Senate on 27 December 1978, a few days before his term expired. This maneuver permitted the state’s
governor to appoint senator-elect Thad Cochran to the position and provided the new legislator a jump start ahead of his freshman
colleagues on the senate’s seniority scale. Eastland and his wife retired to their 5,800-acre plantation in Sunflower County
on the outskirts of Doddsville, Mississippi. In ill health during his last years, Eastland made few public appearances. In
August 1985, he attended the dedication ceremonies for a U.S. Courthouse and Post Office building in the state capital named
in his honor. Asked in an interview later that year if he would change anything if he had to repeat his life, Eastland replied
simply “I voted my convictions.”

The man once known simply as “The Chairman” died on 19 February 1986 in the Greenwood Leflore County Hospital from a medical
condition complicated by pneumonia. He left behind his wife Elizabeth; his son, Woods Eastland; and his daughters, Nell Amos,
Anne Howdeshell, and Sue Terney. James O. Eastland was buried in the family plot in Forest, Mississippi. In 1991, the board
of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History elected Eastland to the Mississippi Hall of Fame on the same day they
voted in the slain NAACP leader Medgar Evers.

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Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

The James O. Eastland collection is stored at an off-site facility. Researchers interested in using this collection must contact
Archives and Special Collections at least two business days in advance of their planned visit.

For preservation reasons, access to original recordings is restricted; however, digital counterparts are available to researchers
in the James O. Eastland Digital Collection. Although descriptions for all of the collection’s recordings are available to anyone on the internet, only some of the recordings
are accessible on the web due to copyright. Researchers may review restricted material via onsite computer terminals in the
J.D. Williams Library.

Due to privacy and confidentiality concerns, files of individuals in File Series 3, Subseries 2: Academy Files; File Series
3, Subseries 5: Case Files; and File Series 3, Subseries 6: Immigration Case Files will remain closed for seventy-five years
after the latest date in each file’s description. With proof of identity, individuals may access their own files prior to
that release date. In addition, researchers may access the files of those individuals that are deceased. See the Restriction Policy for Modern Political Archives for additional information.

Copyright Restrictions

See the University of Mississippi Archives and Special Collections Policies for information on use restrictions.

The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions
of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a
photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be “used
for any purpose other than private study, scholarship or research.” If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy
or reproduction for purposes in excess of “fair use”, that user may be liable for copyright infringement.

Additions

No further additions are expected to this collection.

Acquisition Information

The University of Mississippi received the first boxes for the James O. Eastland Collection in 1977 with the bulk arriving
after the senator’s retirement in 1978. The university hired a history graduate student, John Sobotka, to handle the initial
transfer. Sobotka worked in Eastland’s congressional office for the last year of the senator’s tenure. The university then
rehired Sobotka to arrange the packing and shipment of the remaining files, and the Law School appointed him curator of the
Eastland Collection.

In July 2004, the university administration transferred all responsibility for the Eastland Collection from the Law School
to the Department of the Archives and Special Collections in the J.D. Williams Library.

Processing Information

Because many scholars have expressed an interest in the Eastland papers over the years, the archives decided to make the collection
available in installments as opposed to restricting access until the entire collection had undergone processing. The Political
Archives staff took several months to clearly identify each box in the Eastland Collection and prepare an inventory of the
folder contents. During this period, the Political Archivist also sorted thousands of loose publications (for a description
of the process, see the introductory remarks for File Series 1, Subseries 25). Simply removing office supplies and publications
whittled the size of the collection from an estimated 3,000 linear feet to approximately 1,800 linear feet.

Once the staff achieved physical control over the content of the Eastland papers, it became clear that preserving the integrity
of the current arrangement would only hinder accessibility for researchers. Not only was the office filing system altered
numerous times during the senator’s tenure, the filing itself was inconsistent and haphazard. In fact, many boxes simply contained
loose documents and folders that possessed no chronological, topical, or functional coherence. Furthermore, constituent case
files which tend to contain data of a private nature (such as medical records, service records, financial information, and
identification numbers) were not completely isolated in clearly labeled boxes or folders but appeared in files throughout
the collection. In 2005, the Political Archivist began sorting each file — and more often than not each document — into
categories drawn from the professional literature on congressional papers management. However, the archivist preserved Eastland’s
existing filing system with regards to Campaign Records and Law Firm Files.

In December 2006, the Modern Political Archives received a $1,000 Partners Grant from the University of Mississippi Provost’s
Office for a pilot project to restore and make digital access copies of several audio reel-to-reel recordings in the Eastland
Collection. The laboratories of Cutting Corporation completed work on thirteen hours of recordings in February 2007.

Leigh McWhite, Political Papers Archivist, directed the processing of File Series 1: Personal/Political. Joey Hammond, Senior
Library Assistant, assisted with the massive undertaking as did the following student workers: Ryan Aber, Elizabeth Campbell,
Joy Douglas, Rosland Holland, Brandon Lennep, Lynn Linnemeier, Sharee Pittman, and Rachel Smith. Work began on the project
in August 2004. The on-line finding aid, prepared with the assistance of Chatham Ewing, Digital Initiatives Librarian, posted
in June 2006.

McWhite and Hammond completed processing File Series 2: Public Relations in May 2007 with the help of the following student
workers: Elizabeth Campbell, Erika Carpenter, Rebecca Domm, Brandon Lennep, Rachael Smith, Casey Spradling, David Steele,
and Maarten Zwiers. Greg Johnson, Blues Archivist, provided advice and technical assistance with Subseries 2: Audio Recordings
while Shugana Campbell, Curator of Visual Collections, helped to compile the inventory for Subseries 3: Audiovisual Recordings.
Ewing assisted with the necessary revisions for adding File Series 2 to the on-line finding aid.

McWhite and Ellie Campbell, Senior Library Assistant, completed File Series 3: Constituent Files in March 2008 with the help
of the following student workers: Erika Carpenter, Suzanne Farmer, Alyson Kennedy, Natoria Kennel-Foster, Brandon Lennep,
Andrew Meadors, Andrew Mullins, Courtney Metz, Katrina Sims, Maggie Tate, and Chase Wynn. Digital Initiatives Librarian Jason
Kovari posted revisions to the online finding aid.

In 2010-2011, the archive received a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services to preserve and digitize all
the recordings in the Modern Political Archives, including the audio and audiovisual recordings in the Eastland Collection.
The digitization and preservation of recordings in this collection are the result of a project supported in part by a grant
from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed on this
website do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

McWhite and Senior Library Assistants Stephanie McKnight and Tara Pawley completed File Series 4: Legislative Files, File
Series 5: Office Files, and File Series 6: Memorabilia in October 2014. The following student workers assisted: John Drew
Carter, Philip Cunningham, Christopher Fox, Harman Kaur, Michelle McAuley, Lennie Patterson, Tara Pawley, Benji Purvis, Katrina
Sims, John Snyder, Sarah Stephens, Akellea Swingrum, Robbie Tinn, Audrey Uffner, and Jordan Youngblood. Digital Initiatives
Librarian Susan Ivey and student worker Hannah Hultman updated and EAD-encoded the revised online finding aid.

Separated Material

Curators removed numerous publications from the James O. Eastland Collection. Many of these volumes are now available in the
main stacks of the J.D. Williams Library, the Government Documents depository, or the Archives and Special Collections. Further
information on the books from the collection appears in File Series 1, Subseries 25: Book Inventory. Researchers can also
conduct an author search in the University of Mississippi Libraries catalog for “Eastland, James O.” and select the “Collector” option from the results to view records for all retained volumes.

For preservation reasons, original recordings are stored in a climate-controlled facility. Researchers may access their digital
counterparts in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection.

Also for preservation reasons, original photographs are stored in a climate-controlled environment. The archives is currently
digitizing these images and adding them to the Eastland Collection Photographs digital collection.

For security reasons, the original correspondence of selected individuals (such as presidents or celebrities) resides in a
VIP Restricted Access location. Photocopies of the originals and removal notification replace the original documents within
the collection.

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Related Materials

Related Material at the University of Mississippi:

Thomas G. Abernethy Collection. Abernethy represented Mississippi in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1943 to 1973. The finding aid for the Abernethy
Collection contains an item-level description for four boxes of files on the Mississippi Election Contest of 1964-1965 which
includes several pieces of correspondence with Eastland. The collection also contains files on legislation both congressmen
sponsored.

Carroll Gartin Collection. Gartin served as Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi three times and ran against Eastland in the 1954 Democratic Primary.
His collection includes campaign records from that contest. Recordings and photographs are available online in the Carroll Gartin Digital Collection.

Fannie Lou Hamer Collection. A former sharecropper from Eastland’s home county, Hamer became a leading civil rights activist and her papers include files
on the National Committee for Free Elections in Sunflower County.

Joseph M. Howorth Collection of James O. Eastland Correspondence. Collection consists of five letters between Howorth and Eastland dating from 1927 to 1941.

Ed King Collection. The files of this civil rights activist contain clippings on the senator, correspondence relating to state NAACP president
Aaron Henry’s endorsement of Eastland’s 1978 reelection, and documents on the National Committee for Free Elections in Sunflower
County from the 1960s.

Mississippi Politics Collection. This collection contains an undated campaign poster for Eastland.

Nash and Taggart Collection. This collection includes a number of oral histories that recall Eastland.

Clarence Pierce Collection. Pierce served as a staff assistant for Eastland from 1964 to 1968 and was an employee of the U.S. Senate from 1968 to 1972.

John C. Satterfield/American Bar Association Collection. This collection includes Eastland correspondence.

William M. Whittington Collection. Whittington represented Mississippi in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1925 to 1951. His congressional papers includes
correspondence with Eastland.

Descriptions of additional political holdings are available in the Politics and Government Subject Guide which includes material from the eighteenth century to the present.

Further Archival Sources on Eastland:

The Alabama Department of Archives and History contains Eastland material in three collections: the John H. Bankhead Papers,
the Clifford J. Durr Papers, and the Virginia F. Durr Papers.

The Broadcast Pioneers Library at the University of Maryland has two 1973 Eastland audiotapes in the Westinghouse Broadcasting
Company Collection.

A Virginia Durr interview in the Oral History Project at Columbia University discusses Eastland.

The Gerald R. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan possesses correspondence and briefing papers related to Eastland.

The Law School Library at Harvard University has material related to Eastland in the Richard Hinkley Field Papers.

The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library maintains a website where one can download the transcript of a 1971 Eastland interview by
Joe B. Frantz.

The McCain Library and Archives at the University of Southern Mississippi has several oral histories which discuss Eastland
including that of Erle Johnston, a former public relations campaign manager for the senator, and Frank Barber, a field man
in Eastland’s 1954 campaign and a member of the senator’s congressional staff. Barber also served as a legislative assistant
on the Internal Security Subcommittee.

The Mississippi Department of Archives and History has four boxes of speeches, photographs, and Judiciary Committee prints.

Mississippi State University’s Mitchell Memorial Library possesses ten Eastland items and photographs, as well as an oral
history in the John Stennis Collection.

The Richard B. Russell Library at the University of Georgia contains a 1971 interview with Eastland concerning Senator Russell.

The Hugh Scott Papers in the Alderman Library at the University of Virginia contains correspondence with Eastland. Additionally,
the Presidential Recordings Program at the University of Virginia maintains a website where one can listen to a conversation
between President Johnson and Eastland regarding the 1964 murders of three civil rights workers in Philadelphia, Mississippi.

The Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas hosts an online video and transcript of Mike Wallace interviewing Eastland
(28 July 1957) available at http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/collections/film/holdings/wallace/.

he U.S. Senate maintains a web page discussing the James O. Eastland portrait in the Senate Art Collection at http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/Painting_32_00040.htm.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Agriculture — Mississippi.
  • Legislation — United States.
  • United States. Congress. House.
  • United States. Congress. Senate.

Geographic Name(s)

  • Southern States — Politics and government — 1951-
  • United States — Politics and government — 1945-1989.
  • United States — Politics and government–20th century.

Personal Name(s)

  • Eastland family.
  • Eastland, James O. (James Oliver), 1904-1986

Subject(s)

  • Political campaigns — Mississippi.
  • Politicians — Mississippi
  • Practice of law — Mississippi.
  • United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary

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Bibliography

Chris Myers Asch. “No Compromise: The Freedom Struggles of James O. Eastland and Fannie Lou Hamer” (Ph.D. Dissertation, University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2005). Call Number:
E840.8 E25 A83.

________. “Revisiting Reconstruction: James O. Eastland, the FEPC, and the Struggle to Rebuild Germany, 1945-1946” Vol. 67,
No. 1
Journal of Mississippi History (2005): 1-28. Call Number:
F336 J68.

________.
The Senator and the Sharecropper: The Freedom Struggles of James O. Eastland and Fannie Lou Hamer. New York: New Press, 2008. Call Number:
F347 S9 A83 2008.

Joe Atkins. “Former U.S. Sen. Eastland Dies” Jackson Daily News (19 February 1986): 1A

________. “Eastland Honored at Building Dedication”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (10 August 1985): 1B.

________. “Eastland’s Influence: How Strong Was (Is) It?”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (27 October 1985): 15A.

________. “Hundreds Pay Last Respects to Eastland”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (22 February 1986): 1A & 8A.

________. “Senator ‘Got Things Done’: Associates Recall Power of the ‘Machine'”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (27 October 1985): 1A & 16A.

________. “Jim Eastland Winds Down a Life of Power”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (27 October 1985): 1A & 16A.

Bart Barnes. “Former Senator James Eastland of Mississippi Dies”
Washington Post (20 February 1986): C9.

Michael Barone, et al.
The Almanac of American Politics 1976 (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1976), pp. 453-456. Call Number:
JK271 B343.

________.
The Almanac of American Politics 1978 (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978), pp. 457-60. Call Number:
JK271 B343.

Sarah Hart Brown. “Congressional Anti-Communism and the Segregationist South: From New Orleans to Atlanta, 1954-1958” Vol.
80, No. 4
Georgia Historical Quarterly (Winter 1996): 785-816. Call Number:
JK271 B343.

Don Colburn.
James O. Eastland: Democratic Senator from Mississippi (Grossman Publishers, 1972). Part of the Ralph Nader Congress Project. Call Number:
E840.8 E25 C64 1972.

Lloyd Gray. “James Eastland: Southern Politics and Double-Edged Power”
Biloxi-Gulfport Sun-Herald (26 March 1978): A1, A8, & A10.

Marjorie Hunter. “James O. Eastland Is Dead at 81; Leading Senate Foe of Integration”
New York Times (20 February 1986): D23.

Carole Lawes. “NAACP Leader, Segregationist Elected to Mississippi’s Hall of Fame”
Jackson Clarion Ledger (7 December 1991): 1B.

J. Todd Moye.
Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi 1945-1986 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). Call Number:
F347 S9 M695 2004.

Gary Nelson, et al. “Committees in the U.S. Congress 1947-1992” Vol. 2 (
Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1993), pp. 264-65.

Robert Ourlian. “Death Prompts Tales of Colorful Career”
Jackson Clarion-Ledger (20 February 1986): 1A & 15A.

Steve Riley. “Politicians Nationwide Will Honor Eastland”
Jackson Clarion-Ledger (20 February 1986): 1A & 15 A.

Wolfgang Schlauch. “Representative William Colmer and Senator James O. Eastland and the Reconstruction of Germany, 1945” Vol.
34, No. 3
Journal of Mississippi History (1972): 193-213. Call Number:
F336 J68.

Peter H. Schuck.
The Judiciary Committees: A Study of the House and Senate Judiciary Committees (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1975). Call Number:
KF4997 J8 R34.

Robert Sherrill. “Jim Eastland, Child of Scorn” in
Gothic Politics in the Deep South: Stars of the New Confederacy (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1968), pp. 174-215. Call Number:
F216.2 S48.

Dan W. Smith Jr. “James O. Eastland, Early Life and Career, 1904-1942” (M.A. thesis; Mississippi College; 1978). Call Number:

E840.8 E25 S65 1978 OVRS.

Dorothy M. Zellner. “Red Roadshow: Eastland in New Orleans, 1954” Vol. 33, No. 1
Louisiana History (1992): 31-60. Call Number:
F366 L6238.

Maarten Zwiers. “The Paradox of Power: James O. Eastland and the Democratic Party” (M.A. thesis; University of Mississippi;
2007). Call Number:
LD3411.82 Z9654 2007.

________. “James Eastland: The Shadow of Southern Democrats” (Ph.D. dissertation; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; 2012). Call
Number:
E840.8 E25 Z85 2012.

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Collection Inventory

Series 1: Personal/Political 

Subseries 1: Biography 

Scope and Content

Arranged sequentially, the folders in this one-box subseries contain biographical outlines of Eastland’s life. The senator
or his staff composed some of these documents, while others are the work of outside sources like the annual reference work
Who’s Who. In addition, the files contain correspondence relating to oral histories by Eastland, and in one case, the transcript
of an interview conducted in 1971 that focuses primarily on the senator’s relationship with President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Container Listing

Subseries 2: Family Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The single box in this subseries contains Eastland’s family correspondence in an alphabetical arrangement. The bulk of the
series is the personal correspondence of Eastland’s father, Woods C. Eastland. The family patriarch, Woods was a successful
planter and lawyer. He was also a major political player in Mississippi. Elected as a district attorney from the eighth district
in 1911, the elder Eastland made many connections in the political arena. He became particularly close to Paul B. Johnson,
Sr., governor of Mississippi from 1940 to 1943. The Woods C. Eastland correspondence also indicates that he participated at
a decision-making level in the federal and state job patronage system. Of particular interest is Woods C. Eastland’s correspondence
from the year 1941, when Paul B. Johnson appointed James Eastland to serve the remaining term of the late U.S. Senator Pat
Harrison. Congratulations poured in from friends around the country, and the correspondence includes instructions from father
to son. Further correspondence from Woods C. Eastland discussing his son’s election campaigns appears in the Campaign Records
subseries.

The Family Correspondence subseries also contains correspondence with Senator Eastland’s cousin, Oliver “Punk” Eastland; his
cousin Woods Eastland and wife Lucille; another cousin named Woods and his wife, Bunny; his mother, Alma; his wife, Elizabeth;
his granddaughter, Mary Elizabeth; his aunt, Ida Ormond; and his uncle William Lane Austin, who worked for the Census Bureau
in Austin, Texas. Further correspondence with Ida Ormond (who served as postmistress of Forest, Mississippi) also appears
in the State/Local subseries, “Forest, Mississippi — Post Office” folder as well as in those files of the Patronage, Nominations,
Employment, and School Recommendations subseries related to post office positions in Forest, Mississippi.

Container Listing

Subseries 3: Plantation Records 

Scope and Content

The three boxes that comprise the Plantation Records subseries contain the records of Eastland’s plantation outside of Doddsville
in Sunflower County, Mississippi. The records are organized in chronologically from the 1930s through 1978. Most of the early
materials are reports to Eastland in Washington on the daily running of the plantation, such as information on the weather
and plantation supplies. The files also contain ledgers recording the plantation’s expenses, including monthly ledgers confirming
workers’ wages on the plantation.

A compelling aspect of this subseries is its rarity. While several collections exist on plantations in the nineteenth century,
records from the more recent past are less available to scholars. These files also provide an opportunity to trace changes
in plantation operations from the late 1930s through the Civil Rights Era to the late 1970s.

At the end of the series is a large folder dedicated completely to correspondence and material on Charolais cattle, a particular
interest of the senator’s.

Container Listing

Subseries 4: Law Firm Records 

Scope and Content

Before joining the U.S. Senate, James O. Eastland had a small law practice in Ruleville, Mississippi. As with most of Eastland’s
career ventures, he was in business with his father, Woods C. Eastland. The four boxes of material in this subseries feature
case files from Eastland’s law office in the 1930s and 1940s. The files are in alphabetical order by client or correspondent,
and the folders retain the original subject headings of the law firm. Most of the practice dealt primarily with civil law
and family law. In addition to strictly legal matters, the files also contain correspondence of a more political nature, such
as requests for assistance in gaining government employment or receiving pardons or shortened sentences for imprisoned laborers.

Container Listing

Subseries 5: Financial Records 

Scope and Content

The four boxes in the Financial Records subseries contain records from 1924 through 1978, with the bulk of the material dating
between the late 1930s and the 1950s. The documents include tax records, personal checks, and paid bills. During the latter
years, gaps appear. Researchers interested in finances should also consult the Plantation subseries.

Container Listing

Subseries 6: Donations 

Scope and Content

The files in the two boxes of the Donation subseries are arranged chronologically and contain letters and information related
to Eastland’s charitable works. The bulk of the subseries concerns Eastland’s involvement in the CARE program that provided
aid to Europe following World War II. Although the CARE program operated in several countries, the families that received
Eastland’s packages all lived in Germany. Most of the documents from this period are letters from those families. Eastland
also received Christmas and Easter cards from the families, which are located in the Holiday Cards subseries. Besides the
CARE letters, this subseries includes appeals to Eastland from numerous charitable organizations, churches, and individuals
for donations.

Container Listing

Subseries 7: Personal Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The two boxes in this subseries contain the personal correspondence of Senator Eastland during his tenure in office. The files
are arranged chronologically. Contents are not related to Congress or financial matters. For example, the files contain letters
received during Eastland’s stays in the hospital and congratulations upon the births of his children.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 1. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will provide cross-referencing information for separated material.

Container Listing

Subseries 8: Holiday Cards 

Scope and Content

The four boxes in this subseries contain holiday cards and birthday greetings received by Eastland. Grouped first by holiday,
files are then arranged chronologically. The last box, however, contains copies of correspondence from Eastland and his staff
thanking givers of Christmas presents, lists of gifts presented by Eastland, and lists of cards sent or received by Eastland.

Container Listing

Subseries 9: Executive Secretary/Virginia Simmerman 

Scope and Content

At one time, Virginia Simmerman was a secretary in U.S. Senator Theodore G. Bilbo’s office. She then briefly worked at the
War Department before taking a position as Eastland’s secretary in 1943. Simmerman remained with the senator until 1951. Most
of the correspondence is personal in nature, with some requests for assistance with the government or discussions of Mississippi
politics. Of particular note is one folder devoted to the christening of the steamship “Victory Pontotoc” in January 1945
at the Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard in Baltimore, Maryland. A native of Pontotoc, Simmerman was chosen as the “Sponsor” for
the occasion and thus assisted with the arrangements for the christening ceremony.

Container Listing

Subseries 10: Executive Secretary/Jean Allen 

Scope and Content

Employed as a secretary in the senator’s congressional office, Jean Allen worked for Eastland from 1945 until his retirement
in 1978. The first box contains material related to the United States Senate Administrative Assistants and Secretaries Association
from 1969 through 1978, in which Allen appears to have held the office of secretary. The association sponsored a number of
social events and many of these functions included the attendance of senators. These files are arranged chronologically, as
are the files of Allen’s personal documents contained in the second box. The exceptions to this chronological order are Folder
2-30 and the loose notebooks which contain handwritten, typed, and shorthand notes composed by or for Allen in the course
of her office work.

Container Listing

Subseries 11: Guestbooks 

Scope and Content

The two boxes in this subseries contain the guest books signed by visitors to Senator Eastland’s congressional office in Washington,
DC between 1953 and 1978.

Container Listing

Subseries 12: Invitations 

Scope and Content

Comprising twenty-one boxes of invitations received by Eastland, the files in this subseries are first arranged by the date
of the event and then subdivided according to whether the senator accepted or declined the invitation or whether the material
fails to indicate his response. Scattered invitations also appear in the Executive Branch Correspondence, Federal Correspondence,
Congressional Correspondence, and Campaign subseries.

Container Listing

Subseries 13: Schedules/Appointments 

Scope and Content

The three boxes in this subseries contain letters requesting appointments with the Eastland and scheduling calendars. The
first part of the collection is a chronological arrangement of the correspondence; and the second part is a chronological
arrangement of his calendars.

Container Listing

Subseries 14: Trips 

Scope and Content

Arranged chronologically, the files in this subseries contain correspondence, publications, and ephemera related to various
excursions Eastland took to foreign destinations. Perhaps most noteworthy is the visit he made in 1945 with the Committee
on Naval Affairs to view the aftermath of World War II. This trip inspired Eastland to urge the administration to adopt a
more conciliatory reconstruction plan for Western Europe. In 1969, Eastland visited South Africa and Rhodesia, both under
white control at the time. Larry Speakes, the senator’s press secretary, accompanied him, and Eastland actively publicized
the trip.

Container Listing

Subseries 15: Telephone Memoranda 

Scope and Content

The single box of this subseries contains telephone memoranda from Eastland’s office. Most of the documents are undated and
therefore reside in the last folder. Those few messages that do have dates are organized accordingly. Evidently, the office
never adopted a formal message logging system, communicating telephone calls mainly through ad hoc typed and handwritten notes.

Container Listing

Subseries 16: Executive Branch Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The two boxes in this subseries contain correspondence between Senator Eastland (or his staff) and the executive branch of
the federal government. Files are arranged sequentially by presidential administration, and then by the office of the correspondent.
“White House Correspondence” folders include the exchange of letters with the president as well as with White House staff.
These files also include separate folders containing White House press releases. Direct correspondence with presidents and
vice-presidents after they have left office appear in folders at the end of their respective administration files. Copies
replace all original documents signed by presidents and vice-presidents (originals reside in a VIP Restricted Access location).

The container list for this subseries contains a description of every document, including the names and titles of correspondents,
dates, and a brief description of the content. Note that executive correspondence also appears in the subseries Patronage,
Nominations, Employment, and School References, as well as in those of the Routine Requests subseries regarding appeals for
Eastland’s assistance in gaining acceptance of invitations to various Mississippi events. Photographs of presidents and vice
presidents reside in the Photographs subseries.

The contents of this subseries have been digitized in their entirety and are available as full-text documents in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection.

Container Listing

Subseries 17: Federal Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The ten boxes in this subseries contain correspondence between Senator Eastland and various federal government departments,
commissions, and agencies. The files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the department, commission, or agency. Reorganization
of the government occurred several times in the course of Eastland’s career, so specific functional units might appear in
various locations on the list and may have changed names.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 3. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will provide cross-referencing information for separated material.

Container Listing

Subseries 18: Congressional Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The eleven boxes in this subseries contain Eastland’s correspondence with U.S. Senators and U.S. Representatives, as well
as various non-member congressional offices and agencies. Arranged alphabetically by the last name of the member of Congress,
the inventory then provides a chronological, item-level description of each document. Eastland correspondence with congressional
office and committee staff appears under the relevant member of Congress. Correspondence with no apparent date is placed at
the end of each file.

The item-level description includes a brief summary of the topic under discussion. Subjects discussed range from routine birthday
greetings; thank you notes for gifts; requests for signed photographs, surplus tickets, or publications; and discussions of
committee assignments. Other letters may contain in-depth analysis of politics and legislation with attached memoranda and
publications. Also present are drafts of tributes by Eastland honoring various colleagues.

Researchers should note that members of Congress often send letters addressed as “My dear Senator,” or “Dear Colleague” to
either the entire Congress or to the membership of their respective legislative branch. However, those letters on the inventory
designated as specifically addressed to Eastland were not necessarily sent to him alone. Also, note that Eastland occasionally
received copies of correspondence between other members of Congress, as well as correspondence between other members of Congress
and the executive branch or federal government agencies. Occasionally, correspondence between Eastland and constituents are
filed in this subseries if the only topic under discussion is a particular member of Congress.

Several members of Congress may co-sign a letter. All correspondents are listed in the item-level description (if a typed
name appears underneath the signature), but the relevant letter is filed under the individual whose name is on the letterhead
(if that is unclear, the first name listed). Thus, researchers interested in a particular member of Congress should conduct
a search throughout the entire subseries inventory, not just that individual’s file.

When apparent from the context of the correspondence, the item-level description provides the number of the senate (or house)
bill (or resolution) under discussion, as well as the unofficial name of the legislation. Descriptive terms used are not consistent,
so researchers should either read the entire subseries inventory or conduct numerous keyword searches on potential terms.
The archivist made a concerted effort, however, to provide the specific name of the federal department/agency/office referenced
in a piece of correspondence. In addition, the archivist avoided using government acronyms whenever possible, so conduct keyword
searches on terms in the complete title of a government agency or program.

Correspondence between Eastland’s office and non-member congressional offices are at the end of the subseries. These files
also appear in alphabetical order, but contain no item-level description as the majority of this correspondence is typically
of a mundane, administrative nature.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 3. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will provide cross-referencing information for separated material.

Most congressional correspondence pertaining to an individual employment application or nomination resides in the subseries
Patronage, Nominations, Employment, and School References. Other congressional letters regarding constituent appeals for the
senator’s assistance inviting a congressman to Mississippi events exist in the Routine Requests subseries. Letters co-signed
by Eastland and other members of Congress are also in the Executive Branch Correspondence and the Federal Correspondence subseries.

Container Listing

Subseries 19: Campaign Records 

Scope and Content

Senator James O. Eastland competed in six elections over the course of his career. These campaigns occurred in 1942, 1948,
1954, 1960, 1966, and 1972 (see chart below). The files in this subseries of forty-three boxes are arranged by election years,
and this subseries is one of the few in the collection that preserves the original filing system of Eastland’s office. Within
each campaign, the records are first organized alphabetically by counties, and these county files primarily contain letters
of support to Eastland. The county files are followed by various subject folders such as newspaper clippings, mailing lists,
voter’s lists, speaking engagements, policy statements, campaign literature, and form letters. The senator also prepared a
campaign for 1978, and this subseries contains those files, as well as documents on his retirement announcement and subsequent
public reaction.

The extensive time span covered by these files documents transformations in the conduct of political elections. Files from
1942, for instance, include logs from county managers reflecting a more personal and grassroots style. Also of interest is
a letter from U.S. Senator Theodore Bilbo urging Eastland to join the armed forces during World War II and Eastland’s response
that Bilbo’s motives were not patriotic but purely political as Eastland was then running against Bilbo’s handpicked candidate.
With each successive campaign (except for the years 1948 and 1960 when Eastland ran unopposed), the amount of documentation
increases. After the 1972 election, the Senate investigated Eastland’s campaign for taking an illegal contribution. Eastland’s
letters of the time, however, state that all members of Congress were audited after the 1972 campaign, and although cleared,
Eastland’s staff endeavored to ensure that similar accusations would not reoccur.

Examination of the campaign subseries would permit a researcher to determine the network of behind-the-scene power brokers
that existed throughout the state of Mississippi from the 1940’s through the 1970’s. The subseries contains many letters from
Eastland’s political allies keeping him abreast of local political developments while allies and constituents probed Eastland
for his stance on issues of the day, such as segregation, civil rights, and agricultural policies.

Favor files and oversized campaign items appear at the end of the subseries. In many cases, favor files are identical to constituent
case files in which Eastland provided assistance for his constituents. Eastland’s staff preserved copies of case file letters
(or, failing that, accumulated index cards retaining the pertinent information) in self-styled “favor files,” which were later
used to compile campaign mailing lists. The relatively smaller size of the favor files, however, indicates that not every
case file automatically became a favor file – thus, the preservation of these duplicate copies for interested researchers.

Eastland Elections

• 1942 – Eastland v. Wall Doxey in the Democratic primary (Until the 1960s, Mississippi was essentially a one-party state
and Eastland’s serious opposition was in the party primary, not the general election).

• 1948 – Eastland ran unopposed

• 1954 – Eastland v. Carroll Gartin in the Democratic Primary

• 1960 – Eastland ran unopposed

• 1966 – Eastland (D) v. Prentiss Walker (R) in the general election

• 1972 – Eastland (D) v. Gil Carmichael (R) in the general election

• 1978 – Eastland chose not to run. Thad Cochran (R) won the election against Maurice Dantin (D)

Container Listing

Subseries 20: Politics 

Scope and Content

Arranged chronologically, the four boxes of files in this subseries contain correspondence, clippings, and other ephemera
of a strictly political nature at both the state and national level. Please note that material related to Eastland’s own election
campaigns as well as papers related to his decision to retire in 1978 are located in the Campaign Records subseries. Further
material of a political nature also appears in the following subseries: Mississippi Office/C.B. Curlee and Wilburn Buckley
Files; Executive Secretary/Virginia Simmerman Files; Congressional Correspondence; Executive Branch Correspondence; and Issue
Correspondence. Newspaper and magazine clippings on political matters appear in the Clippings subseries.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 5. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will cross-reference information on separated material.

Container Listing

Subseries 21: Mississippi Office/C.B. Curlee and Wilburn Buckley 

Scope and Content

Senator Eastland employed C.B. Curlee and Wilburn Buckley as his representatives within the state of Mississippi. As such,
both men had occasion to relay political information and opinions in their correspondence to the senator. Curlee’s letters,
in particular, contain lengthy and detailed observations on Mississippi campaigns and political maneuverings. Further Curlee
correspondence is in the Campaign Files subseries. Both Curlee and Buckley also operated as case workers intermediating between
individuals (or locales) and the federal government. Files in this one-box subseries are arranged chronologically.

Container Listing

Subseries 22: Patronage, Nominations, Employment and School References 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains fifty-nine boxes of documents related to employment and school admission. A broad category, these
files include information on individuals ranging from aspirants to the U.S. Supreme Court to students seeking summer employment
as manual laborers in the Forest Service. The jobs under consideration include federal and state positions as well as careers
in private business. Students sought the senator’s assistance in their applications to colleges, graduate schools, medical
schools, and law schools. The files also contain correspondence from individuals wanting a position on Eastland’s congressional
and committee staffs. Note that appointments to military service academies such as West Point and Annapolis appear in the
Academy Appointments subseries.

Files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the job applicant, and may contain resumes, correspondence with the applicant
and interested parties, and constituents expressing endorsement or opposition to the candidate or nominee. The inventory identifies
the prospective employer in the form of a named government agency/department or private business, and the time span of the
documents in each file. Requests for government positions (either state or federal) within Mississippi include the name of
the community.

The last five boxes possess documents not filed by an individual name, but by the position sought. This includes correspondence
that discuss several individuals vying for the same job without endorsement of a specific applicant, as well as applicants
for jobs with Eastland’s office or committees.

Senator Eastland formally held patronage appointments to the U.S. Capitol Police. Although the files indicate that he on rare
occasions influenced the selection of constituent’s children as congressional pages, he typically replied to such requests
that he did not possess that particular appointment patronage.

Between 1836 and 1969, the president appointed local postmasters nominated by that state and district’s U.S. Representative
(if he or she belonged to the same political party) or a state committee composed of the president’s supporters. Even after
civil service tests became a part of the process, an applicant would still seek the support of their senators who could essentially
“veto” an appointment by delaying Senate confirmation indefinitely. Post office patronage files often contain significant
discussions of a political nature that extend beyond the applicant’s party involvement. At times, a significant percentage
of a community would write letters endorsing one or another competing job seeker, and a number of these letters provide quite
lengthy commentary. For researchers interested in a particular community, post office patronage files can be a rich source
of local history and the state’s political network.

In addition to postal positions, Eastland appeared to have considerable influence with regards to state and local Farmers
Home Administration jobs and made U.S. Marshal appointments within Mississippi.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 6. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will cross-reference information on separated material.

Container Listing

Subseries 23: Presidential Inagurations 

Scope and Content

Arranged sequentially, the files in this one-box subseries hold a range of material related to presidential inaugurations.
These typically include engraved invitations addressed to the senator, requests from constituents for tickets to various
inaugural events, correspondence with inaugural committees, and related publications.

Container Listing

Subseries 24: University of Mississippi 

Scope and Content

The University of Mississippi sponsored two receptions paying tribute to Senator Eastland and raising funds to establish law
school scholarships in his honor. The first of these occurred on 8 March 1976 in Jackson, Mississippi. The second followed
a year later on 20 April 1977 in Washington, DC. The four boxes in this subseries detail the planning of the dinners, as well
as solicitations for donations to fund the Eastland Scholarship in Law. The subseries is organized first by event and concludes
with information on the scholarship. Many of the files and documents in this collection originate with the university and
not Eastland’s office. However, because the university stored the material together with the Eastland Collection and ownership
remained unclear, the archivist made the decision to incorporate the university records within the auspices of the James O.
Eastland Collection.

Container Listing

Return to Table of Contents »


Series 2: Public Relations 

Subseries 1: Photographs, Negatives, and Slides 

Scope and Content

Twenty-seven boxes contain the photographs, negatives, and slides that comprise Subseries 1. The first twenty-two boxes hold
photographs while Box 23 contains negatives and Box 24 stores two binders of slides and one microfiche.

Dating from the 1940s through 1978, the images contain portraits and candid shots of Senator Eastland and other noteworthy
individuals; family; Mississippi constituents visiting the Washington, DC office; campaign activities; pictures of livestock,
agriculture, and forestry; committee hearings; the signing of legislation; Joint Sessions of Congress; Eastland addressing
and attending various events and functions; and trips abroad.

The container list for this particular subseries is presented in the form of a chart. Each row represents an image with column
fields for box and folder numbers; descriptions (which include not only the image but also all attached documents and transcripts
of all inscriptions); date; creator; image type (black and white, color, negative, etc.); size; and notes (information on
condition and the quantity of duplicates available).

Photographs removed from manuscript files will carry information regarding the original location of the image (File Series,
Subseries, Box, and Folder data). For cross reference purposes, each document file contains a removal sheet informing patrons
of the existence of a photograph removed for preservation reasons and identifies the new locale in the Photographs subseries.

All images are in archival sleeves and folders. Boxes are located in a Cold Room which maintains temperature and humidity
settings required by these formats. Patrons wishing access to these images must provide advance notice at least two business days prior to a visit so that curators
may acclimate images to normal temperature and humidity settings before transporting boxes from a separate facility to the
Special Collections Reading Room. There will be no exceptions to this policy
.

The archives is currently digitizing all photographs in this subseries and slowly making them available online in the James O. Eastland Collection Photographs Digital Collection. This project will be completed by the end of 2015. In the mean time, researchers should examine the descriptions in the
container list rather than relying exclusively on the digital collection.

Container Listing

Subseries 2: Audio Recordings 

Scope and Content

Audio recordings in the Eastland Collection include campaign jingles and advertisements, speeches, news interviews, oral histories,
committee hearings, and unsolicited recordings sent to the senator by constituents and citizens across the nation. The James
O. Eastland Collection possesses a total of thirty-four reel-to-reels, forty-three cassette tapes, and five 78 rpm discs.

In January 2007, the Modern Political Archives received a $1,000 grant from the University of Mississippi Provost’s Associates
and Partners Grants Program to restore and create digital copies of eight audio reel-to-reels in the Eastland Collection.
The audio laboratories at Cutting Corporation completed the work one month later.

In 2010, the Institute of Museum and Library Services awarded a $450,000 grant to the University of Mississippi to preserve
and digitize all recordings in the Modern Political Archives. This grant permitted the archive to complete the digitization
of all audio recordings in the collection by May 2011. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed here
do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

For preservation reasons, the original recordings are stored in a climate-controlled facility, and access is restricted. However,
digital counterparts are available as part of the James O. Eastland Digital Collection. Although descriptions of the recordings are available to anyone on the internet, not all of the recordings are accessible
on the web due to copyright.  Researchers may only review restricted recordings via onsite computer terminals in the J.D. Williams Library. Access status
is noted at the end of each recording’s description below
.

The list of digital files below provides the unique identifier (comprised of a format and numerical/alphabetical sequence);
title; date; brief description; time length of the recording; and an access statement. More information is available via the
metadata provided in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection.

Container Listing

Subseries 3: Audiovisual Recordings 

Scope and Content

Audiovisual recordings in the James O. Eastland Collection include government and special interest documentaries, campaign
broadcasts, speeches, television interviews and appearances, public service announcements, and television programs on political
issues. The collection has fifty-one 16mm films, twenty two-inch quad tapes, two umatic tapes, and one 35mm film.

For preservation reasons, the original recordings are stored in a climate-controlled facility, and access is restricted. However,
digital counterparts are available to researchers in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection.

In 2010, the Institute of Museum and Library Services awarded a $450,000 grant to the University of Mississippi to preserve
and digitize all the recordings in the Modern Political Archives. This grant permitted the archives to completely digitize
all audiovisual recordings in the Eastland Collection by May 2011. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed
here do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

Although descriptions of the recordings are available to anyone on the internet, not all of the recordings are accessible
on the web due to copyright. Researchers may only review restricted recordings via onsite computer terminals in the J.D. Williams Library. Access status
is noted at the end of each recording’s description below
.

The list of digital files below provides the unique identifier (comprised of a format and numerical/alphabetical sequence);
title; date; brief description; time length of the recording; and an access statement. More information is available via the
metadata provided in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection.

A number of the audiovisual recordings in the collection are duplicates, and the digital collection only makes available one
of these copies.

Container Listing

Subseries 4: Clippings 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains twenty-four boxes of clippings from newspapers and journals dating between 1910 and 1978, with the
bulk of the material from between 1941 and 1978. Many of these clippings are news stories that either feature or at least
mention Senator Eastland. Other clippings are on subjects of interest to Eastland and his staff. In addition, this subseries
includes clippings forwarded to the senator by constituents and other interested parties; however, most examples of this latter
group reside in Issue Correspondence. Aside from direct coverage of Eastland, frequent topics are agriculture, civil rights,
communism, the Internal Security Subcommittee, the Judiciary Committee, and politics. Researchers interested in Eastland speeches
should be aware that press coverage often pre-dates and post-dates the month in which the event transpired.

Files are organized chronologically by month/year and then alphabetically by subject. Undated material appears at the end
in Box 23. The very last item is a folder of printouts of Eastland news stories between 1969 and 1978 from the New York Times
Information Bank. Oversized material resides in Box 24.

The quantity of clippings in Subseries 2 is not consistent across Eastland’s congressional tenure, and some years are quite
simply sparse – in particular, 1950-1954, 1958-61, and 1963. The volume increased dramatically after 1968, and 1978 boasts
the largest amount.

Further clippings are available in the Scrapbooks subseries. The Audio Recordings subseries also contains several recordings
of Mississippi staff reading local papers aloud over the telephone to Washington, DC personnel.

Finally, archives staff photocopied all newsprint clippings onto archival bond paper to ensure preservation and decrease space
requirements. To these copies, archives staff added bibliographic notations citing publication, date, and page number when
the information was available and not apparent on the copy itself.

Container Listing

Subseries 5: Floor Speeches 

Scope and Content

The ten boxes of this subseries contain drafts of speeches and occasionally research material for speeches that Eastland delivered
on the floor of the Senate. They are arranged chronologically and then by topic. Several of the speeches are marked “not delivered”
when curators could not determine through comparison with the Congressional Record that Eastland had delivered the speech
on the floor of the Senate. Undated material appears at the end. Most of the speeches are concerned with agriculture, communism,
and civil rights. The number of speeches increased in the 1950s following the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education
decision when Eastland became a leading Senate proponent for segregation. As Eastland aged, he spoke less on the floor of
the Senate, particularly after his 1972 election campaign. In fact, many of the speeches that Eastland gave in the years that
followed were tributes to retiring and deceased colleagues. Similar tributes to colleagues also appear in the Congressional
Correspondence and Speeches subseries.

Container Listing

Subseries 6: Speeches 

Scope and Content

The nine boxes in this series contain copies of speeches given by James O. Eastland off the Senate floor. The senator delivered
many of the speeches before various Farm Bureau and other agriculture-related groups, mostly in the state of Mississippi.
Other common events at which Eastland spoke include Citizen Council meetings, Chamber of Commerce meetings, graduation and
commencement ceremonies at high schools and colleges, building and monument dedications, and various festivals, mostly in
Mississippi. Also included are transcripts of Eastland’s tributes to other political figures. Occasionally, a member of Eastland’s
staff would deliver a speech when the senator could not fulfill his speaking obligations. Speech topics often included agriculture,
race relations, and communism.

Files are arranged chronologically when the date of the speech is identifiable. The undated files are at the end of the series.
The last folder contains a list of speeches delivered between 1969 and Eastland’s retirement in 1978. The number of speeches
grew in the 1970s, especially during election years. Researchers interested in campaign speeches should also see the Campaign
Records subseries. Newspaper accounts of Eastland’s speeches are found in the Clippings and Scrapbook subseries. Constituent
reactions to some speeches are located in the Issue Correspondence subseries and requests for printed speeches in the Routine
Requests subseries.

Container Listing

Subseries 7: Scrapbooks 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains nineteen boxes holding thirty-one scrapbooks dating from 1945 through 1978. Although mostly consisting
of newspaper clippings, the formats involved also include photographs and a variety of documents. Several of the scrapbooks
document an array of topics, although many concentrate on themes that include the Internal Security Subcommittee; the Judiciary
Committee; the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelters; Mississippi politics; and the integration of the University
of Mississippi. These volumes also focus on specific aspects of Eastland’s career, such as his 1954 campaign, his position
as President Pro Tempore of the Senate, and his time as Acting Vice President of the United States. Two 1978 scrapbooks relate
to “Jim Eastland Day” in Meridian, Mississippi.

Many of the scrapbook covers have been discarded due to mold. Curators made photocopies or digital images of any covers or
spines containing textual information and placed these copies with the original scrapbook pages. In two cases, mold had infested
the interior of the scrapbooks: for the scrapbook in Box 1, curators made photocopies of the entire scrapbook; and for scrapbook
B in Box 6, a digital copy is available in the James O. Eastland Collection Digital Collection (only accessible via J.D. Williams Library Computer terminals).

Container Listing

Subseries 8: Original Political Cartoon Drawings 

Scope and Content

Like other politicians, Senator James O. Eastland occasionally received original drawings of the political cartoons featuring
himself that had appeared in print. The newsprint versions of these and many other cartoons may be discovered throughout the
Clippings subseries.

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Subseries 9: Press Releases 

Scope and Content

The five boxes in this subseries contain the press releases issued by Eastland’s congressional office. The releases are arranged
chronologically and then alphabetically by subject. As the senator gained seniority, the media became more interested in his
opinions, and the office produced more press releases. During the 1940s, the majority of the releases concerned agriculture,
World War II, and veterans affairs. Agriculture continued to be a primary topic, but during the 1950s and 1960s, many of the
releases dealt with civil rights. After becoming chair of the powerful Judiciary Committee, releases covered communism, the
judiciary, law enforcement, and foreign policy. Many of the press releases intended for distribution to Mississippi newspapers
publicize federal grants awarded within the state.

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Subseries 10: Newsletters and Publications 

Scope and Content

This one-box subseries contains items that were printed at the request of, and distributed by Senator Eastland’s office. During
the early 1970s, Eastland followed the lead of several colleagues by producing a newsletter for his constituents entitled
The Eastland Report. The office did not seem to keep a regular schedule for issuing this newsletter and efforts seem to have
ceased after 1974. Other publications include pamphlets from Eastland’s 1972 reelection campaign, printed speeches delivered
by Eastland, and reprints of the Congressional Record. Two of the published speeches — “The Barter of Our Heritage” and “The
Miracle of Water” – were distributed during Eastland’s 1948 and 1954 election campaigns, respectively.

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Subseries 11: Public Relations Correspondence 

Scope and Content

The two boxes in this subseries contain the correspondence of Senator Eastland or his office staff with various media outlets
throughout the state and the nation between 1941 and 1978. This correspondence includes solicitations of media outlets to
receive Eastland’s audio reports, requests for the senator to appear on television or radio, and requests for photographs
of the senator for media files. The subseries is arranged chronologically by year.

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Subseries 12: Published Writings and Interviews 

Scope and Content

The one box of this subseries contains manuscript drafts and copies of articles written by Eastland between 1946 and 1977.
It also includes published interviews in which the senator participated. Topics tend to focus on agriculture, communism, law
enforcement, civil rights, and the Senate Judiciary Committee. Articles and interviews are arranged together chronologically.
It is possible that further articles by the senator appear in Clippings subseries.

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Series 3: Constituent Files 

Subseries 1: Issue Correspondence 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains 166 boxes of letters on general policy and political subjects from Eastland’s Mississippi constituents
as well as interested organizations and individuals from around the nation and the world. The correspondence dates from 1937
to 1978, with the bulk from 1941 to 1978. Frequent topics include agriculture and cotton, civil rights, communism, the economy,
education, energy, the environment, foreign policy, health care, immigration, industry, labor, media, the military, natural
resources, various individual political figures, Social Security, taxes, transportation, and veterans, as well as various
government branches and institutions like the judiciary, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Researchers interested in constituent reaction to specific federal projects
within the state of Mississippi should also examine the State/Local subseries.

Files are organized alphabetically by general subject followed by year and subcategory if necessary. Undated material appears
at the chronological end of the general subject category. Researchers should check a variety of subject terms when searching
the file lists. For instance, researchers interested in Mississippi’s water resources might try “Water” as well as “Department
of the Interior,” “Natural Resources,” “Corps of Engineers,” “Civil Works,” and “Tennessee Valley Authority.” This subseries
also includes files specifically about Eastland, including “Eastland Addresses” (constituent responses to speeches or interviews
by Eastland) and “Eastland Profiles.”

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 7. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will cross-reference information on separated material.

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Subseries 2: Academny Appointments 

Scope and Content

Members of Congress are authorized to nominate candidates for appointment to the four United States military service academies
(U.S. Military Academy at West Point; U.S. Naval Academy; U.S. Air Force Academy; and the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy). The
twenty-one boxes in this subseries document requests for constituent appointments to these academies. Files are organized
alphabetically by the name of the individual requesting appointment. Folder titles also indicate the specific academy involved
as well as the year. Folders more generally related to an academy or a mix of academies are located at the end of the subseries.

Access Restrictions

Boxes 19, 20, and 21 are open to researchers. However, due to privacy and confidentiality concerns, the files of individuals
will remain closed for seventy-five years after the last dated document for a specific file. Individuals may access their
own files upon providing proof of identification, and the files of the deceased are also open to researchers.

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Subseries 3: Routine Requests 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains sixteen boxes of routine matters involving Senator Eastland’s constituents. These transactions include
a variety of requests such as the provision of basic information on government programs, agencies, or policies; biographical
information about the senator; autographs; recipes; campaign buttons and bumperstickers; U.S. flags; copies of addresses or
speeches made by Eastland; copies of government publications; letters of introduction; assistance with hotel reservations
in Washington, DC; campaign memorabilia; and White House tour passes. Also included are routine correspondence between Eastland
and his constituents to convey condolences, congratulations, thanks, greetings, get well wishes, and invitations.

Files are organized alphabetically by topic and then by year. Undated material appears at the chronological end of the general
subject category.

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Subseries 4: State/Local Files 

Scope and Content

The sixty boxes in the State/Local Files subseries are arranged in alphabetical order, primarily by community or county name,
although bodies of water, organizations, institutions, and topical themes are also represented. Most of the files contain
information and correspondence related to federal grants and constituent requests for the same, although the records also
include requests for Eastland to intervene in the federal bureaucracy on behalf of a community or group. Consequently, this
subseries holds files documenting the senator’s interaction with various branches of the state government.

File Series 3, Subseries 4 can provide a rich source of information for state and local historians. Researchers interested
in a particular locale should check files under the community name, county name, nearby bodies of water, and scan the list
of folders that begin with “Mississippi” for likely candidates. Curators placed documents related to more than one specific
locale in a topical “Mississippi” folder.

To assist researchers interested in a specific subject, records for locales are also subdivided by a fairly standardized set
of subcategories, such as Airport, Education, Flood Control, Heath Care, Highways and Roads, Post Office, and Sewage and Water.
Folders for locales without a subcategory contain information that did not relate specifically to one of the standardized
subcategories or that held data on more than one subcategory.

Researchers interested in flood control should also examine files related to “Agriculture” for information on watersheds and
Soil and Conservation Districts. Other documents on the subject may appear in files on specific bodies of water.

A substantial amount of civil rights material also appears in general locale files as well as subcategories on “Education,”“Hospitals,”
“Health Care,” and specific military facilities.

Disaster relief researchers may also find relevant information on agricultural disaster relief due to weather and flooding
in “Agriculture” files.

Researchers interested in specific banks, hospitals, and community development programs should also check out the Corporate
Case Files subseries.

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Subseries 5: Case Files 

Scope and Content

This subseries consists of 296 boxes of case files. Congressional offices create case files when constituents and other individuals
seek the assistance of congressional members in negotiating a benefit, ruling, or reimbursement for personal gain from the
federal government (and occasionally from state governments and private businesses). Examples will include constituents having
problems with the Social Security payments or Veterans benefits, employers wanting visas for workers to enter the country,
and farmers wanting loans from the Farmers Home Administration.

Files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the individual seeking assistance. Additional descriptive information includes
the name of the government department or agency involved as well as the dates on the files documents. The last eight boxes
in the subseries hold loose and boxed index cards with individual case information.

Access Restrictions

Case files often contain data such as Social Security numbers, military service records, and detailed medical and financial
information. For privacy and confidentiality concerns, the Modern Political Archives restricts access to case files for seventy-five
years after the last dated document in each file. With proof of identity, individuals may access their own file prior to that
release date. In addition, researchers may request the files of those individuals that are deceased.

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Subseries 6: Immigration Case Files 

Scope and Content

The ten boxes in this subseries contain immigration case files maintained by Senator James O. Eastland’s staff. Files are
arranged alphabetically by the name of the immigration sponsor and the folder description includes the date of the content
followed by the name of the potential immigrants (if discernible). Since Eastland chaired the Judiciary Committee’s Immigration
and Naturalization Subcommittee, many of the case files document investigations or legislation required to grant visas or
citizenship.

Access Restrictions

Due to the presence of investigative content derived from the subcommittee in many of the files, access will follow congressional
guidelines. By Senate rules, committee records are closed for twenty years and investigative records for fifty years. To abide
by this rule, the Modern Political Archives will permit researcher access to all files whose last dated material is older
than fifty years. As a consequence of these restrictions, researchers will not have access to the boxes in this subseries
– only those folders where fifty years has lapsed.

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Subseries 7: Corporate Case Files 

Scope and Content

The Corporate Case Files subseries consists of twenty-three boxes that record the actions of Senator James O. Eastland’s office
on behalf of corporations, companies and small businesses (located largely in Mississippi or with interests in the state)
requesting help and intersession with various federal agencies. Contents date from Eastland’s 1941 appointment to the Senate
to his retirement in 1978 and includes requests for aid from family farms, agribusinesses, natural gas and oil companies,
lumber companies, national corporations, and small businesses.

Files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the business entity. Folder descriptions include the government agency involved
as well as the dates of the content. Many of the corporate cases are from World War II and its aftermath and concern matters
with the War Production Board, Office of Price Administration, or the distribution of war surplus after the war. Others files
document efforts to receive loans from the Small Business Administration or favorable action from the Farmers Home Administration.

Researchers should also examine the State/Local subseries for additional files with information on banks, public utilities,
local telecommunication companies, hospitals, and development corporations.

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Subseries 8: Displaced Persons Files 

Scope and Content

In 1946, President Harry S. Truman ordered that immigration preference with regards to restrictive quotas be given to displaced
persons from World War II. The 1948 Displaced Persons Act authorized the admission of certain European displaced persons into
the United States for permanent residence. Individuals and families helped by this act included victims of persecution by
the German Nazi government or those who fled persecution and could not return to their country because of fear of persecution
due to religion, race, or political opinions. Applicable locations were Germany, Austria, Italy, or Czechoslovakia. By 1952
when the Displaced Persons Commission oversight concluded, over 80,000 Jews had immigrated to the United States.

This subseries consists of one box of files maintained by Senator James O. Eastland’s office on the placement of displaced
person in Mississippi. Files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the immigration sponsors, most of whom were farm and
plantation owners (occasionally a manufacturer) in North Mississippi and the Mississippi Delta who sought replacement labor
for the African American labor force that had moved out of the state during and after World War II. Folder descriptions also
include the location of the sponsor as well as dates for the content. The time period covered ranges from 1948 to 1950.

This subseries preserves the original filing system adopted by Senator Eastland’s staff. However, it is possible that similar
displaced person files appear in the Case Files and Immigration Case Files subseries. The following subseries contain additional
material on the subject of displaced persons: Federal Correspondence; Congressional Correspondence; Photographs, Negatives,
and Slides; Clippings; Floor Speeches; and Bills.

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Subseries 9: Administrative Assistant/Courtney C. Page 

Scope and Content

A native of Pace, Mississippi, Courtney C. Pace was born in 1904. He attended the University of Mississippi Law School along
with James O. Eastland, and the two men served together in the Mississippi House of Representatives from 1928 to 1932. Pace
returned home to Cleveland, Mississippi after his term ended and opened a small legal practice. In 1941, the newly appointed
U.S. Senator Eastland asked Pace to join his staff. Pace returned to Washington DC when Eastland won election in 1943, remaining
on staff until both men retired in 1978.

Pace was Eastland’s closest advisor and assumed the position of Administrative Assistant (a post created by the Legislative
Reorganization Act of 1946). As Administrative Assistant, Pace was responsible for the management of constituent services.
Box 1, Folder 10 contains several drafts of an article on the role of congressional Administrative Assistants that Pace submitted
unsuccessfully to the Saturday Evening Post in 1950. The manuscript offers historical insight into the early years of Eastland’s
office. The first few folders also hold several pieces of correspondence between Eastland and Pace regarding the 1942 campaign.
Most of the files in the three boxes of this subseries are concerned with Pace’s personal and financial correspondence.

Pace’s correspondence on congressional subjects appears throughout the Eastland Collection. Researchers particularly interested
in Pace should review recordings of his oral interview in the Audio Recordings subseries. The Clippings subseries also contains
several folders on Pace.

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Subseries 10: Nut Files 

Scope and Content

As with almost any public official, Senator James O. Eastland occasionally received correspondence from individuals who appeared
to suffer from mental illnesses that caused paranoia and a compulsion to write at length on a wide array of subjects. Eastland’s
staff often appended the term “Nut” or “Nut File” to such letters and the folders that contained them.

The single box in this subseries preserves this classification and organizes the correspondence by year with undated material
at the end. The archives added correspondence of a similar nature uncovered during processing.

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Series 4: Legislative Files 

Subseries 1: Bills 

Scope and Content

The nine boxes in this subseries contain drafts of bills that were introduced during James O. Eastland’s tenure in the U.S.
Senate. In addition to the printed bills, folders may also hold memorandums, correspondence, speeches or remarks about the
bills, and miscellaneous material.

Note that some of the legislation found in this subseries will only refer to the congressional calendar, such as “90th congress,
1st session” while other bills will list a date. Every odd-numbered year on January 3rd, a new Congress begins that lasts
for two years. The first year in each Congress is designated as “1st Session” while the next is “2d Session.” Bills are
designated by the chamber in which they were introduced and by a number (therefore “H. 37” is the thirty-seventh bill introduced
in the House during that particular Congress; “S.” corresponds to bills introduced in the Senate).

Files are organized alphabetically by general subject followed by year and occasionally a subcategory. Undated material appears
at the chronological end of the general subject category. Many pieces of legislation that travel through Congress may have
required more than one congressional term to develop. For this reason, researchers should examine years preceding the passage
of a particular bill.

Box 9 contains lists of bills introduced by Senator Eastland or co-sponsored by him between 1941 and 1978.

Please note that bills and related material may be located in other subseries throughout the collection, particularly in the
Congressional Correspondence subseries or in the various committee and subcommittee subseries: Agriculture; Claims; Education
and Labor; Expenditures in the Executive Departments; Judiciary; Internal Security; Post Office and Post Roads; Territories
and Insular Affairs.

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Subseries 2: Voting Record 

Scope and Content

The six boxes in this subseries contain the voting record of James O. Eastland during his career in the U.S. Senate. It also
includes ratings by outside groups of Eastland’s voting record, comparisons to other Senators, days of absence, Congressional
Quarterly weekly reports, excerpts from the Congressional Record, and correspondence concerning Eastland’s voting record.
Some of the material summarizes Eastland’s voting record according to subject. Boxes one through five are arranged chronologically
by a single year followed by voting records representing multiple years. Box six contains oversized voting records.

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Subseries 3: Polls 

Scope and Content

This subseries, consisting of one box, contains poll data gathered from state, regional and national polls. The polling data
is arranged chronologically and the sponsor included in the folder description.

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Subseries 4: Subject Files 

Scope and Content

This subseries contains thirteen boxes of material acquired by Senator James O. Eastland’s office on a variety of subjects.
Most of the files hold publications although some may include clippings and correspondence. The bulk of the files date from
the 1940s to 1970s although some material predates his Senate tenure. Frequent topics include agriculture, civil rights, communism,
foreign policy, the judicial system, labor, taxes, transportation, and youth organizations. There are also files focused on
individuals or specific groups such as the Citizens Council, the Coordinating Committee on Fundamental American Freedoms,
and the Federation for Constitutional Government.

Files are organized alphabetically by general subject followed by year and subcategory if necessary. Researchers should check
a variety of subject terms when searching the file lists. For example, researchers interested in World War II might try “World
War II” as well as “Military” and “Post-War Planning.”

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 8. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will cross-reference information on separated material.

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Subseries 5: Agriculture and Forestry Committee 

Scope and Content

U.S. Senator James O. Eastland was a member of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry from 1951 until his retirement in
1978 (long before that time he had become the second highest ranking Democrat on the committee). He chaired the Environment,
Soil Conservation, and Forestry Subcommittee and held membership on three other subcommittees: Agricultural Production, Marketing,
and Stabilization; Agricultural Research and General Legislation; and Rural Development.

The files contain correspondence and other documents related to the transactions of the Agriculture Committee. Consisting
of two boxes, files are arranged chronologically ending with several folders of undated material.

Sam Thompson served as Eastland’s long-time legislative assistant on agricultural matters, and some of the correspondence
is addressed to Thompson instead of Eastland. Researchers may want to consult Sam Thompson subseries for related agricultural
material.

Further agricultural documents and files are located throughout the collection, particularly in the following subseries: Plantation
Records; Executive Branch Correspondence; Federal Correspondence; Congressional Correspondence; Photograph, Negatives, and
Slides; Audio Recordings; Audiovisual Recordings; Clippings; Floor Speeches; Speeches; Press Releases; Newsletters and Publications;
Published Writings and Interviews; Issue Correspondence; State/Local Files; Case Files; Bills; and Voting Record.

A few large items are stored separately in Eastland Oversized Box 1, Folder 9. A removal sheet included among the regular
sized files will cross-reference information on separated material.

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Subseries 6: Claims Committee 

Scope and Content

In 1944, U.S. Senator James O. Eastland received appointments to four committees: Claims, Education and Labor, Immigration,
and Post Offices and Post Roads. The reorganization of Congress in 1946 decreased the number of Senate committees, and the
Judiciary Committee absorbed the responsibilities of the Claims Committee with regards to the enactment of private laws. Private
laws are for the relief of individuals, small groups of specific persons, corporations, and institutions.

This subseries is comprised of one box with papers related to private claims bills from 1943 and 1946.

Researchers interested in private bills should consult Judiciary Committee subseries for additional material.

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Subseries 7: Education and Labor Committee 

Scope and Content

In 1944, Eastland received an appointment to Education & Labor. The following year he dropped his membership in that committee
and added Judiciary, Naval Affairs, and Territories & Insular Affairs. This subseries on the Education and Labor Committee
consists of one box. Few, if any, of the documents are from Eastland’s tenure on the committee. Most of the material dates
from 1942.

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Subseries 8: Expenditures in Executive Departments Committee 

Scope and Content

Dating from 1947 to 1951, this subseries consists of one box of files related to the Committee on Expenditures in Executive
Departments: membership lists, correspondence, bills referred to the committee, staff memoranda, miscellaneous material, press
releases, clippings, transcripts of hearings, and galleys of committee publications.

Senator Eastland was a member of the Committee on Expenditures in Executive Departments from 1946 until 1951, when he transferred
to the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. According to the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, the Committee on Expenditures
in Executive Departments considered all matters relating to the reorganization of the executive branch of government as well
as all budget and accounting measures other than appropriations. It received reports from the Comptroller General and made
recommendations to the Senate based upon these reports.

Much of the material in this subseries relates to the reorganization of the Executive Branch under President Harry S. Truman,
an investigation into the disposal of surplus military property, and an investigation on homosexuality in the government.

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Subseries 9: Judiciary Committee 

Scope and Content

U.S. Senator James O. Eastland joined the Judiciary Committee in 1945. He assumed the chairmanship in 1956 and retained leadership
until his retirement in 1978. During Eastland’s tenure as chair, the jurisdiction of the Committee on the Judiciary as outlined
by Senate Rule XXV included the following:

• Judicial proceedings, civil and criminal, generally

• Constitutional amendments

• Federal courts and judges

• Local courts in territories and possessions

• Revision and codification of the statutes of the United States

• National penitentiaries

• Protection of trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies

• Holidays and celebrations

• Bankruptcy, mutiny, espionage, and counterfeiting

• State and territorial boundary lines

• Meetings of Congress, attendance of Members, and their acceptance of incompatible offices

• Civil liberties

• Patents, copyrights, and trademarks

• Patent Office

• Immigration and naturalization

• Apportionment of Representatives

• Measures relating to claims against the United States

• Interstate compacts generally.

Changes to Rule XXV in 1977 transferred jurisdiction over meetings of Congress, attendance of Members, and acceptance of incompatible
offices to the Rules and Administration Committee.

Eastland chaired the following Judiciary subcommittees: Civil Rights, FBI Oversight, Internal Security, and Immigration and
Naturalization. As chairman of the full committee, Eastland was an ex officio member of all subcommittees and a regular member
of the Criminal Laws and Procedures, Separation of Powers, and Constitutional Amendments subcommittees.

The eighteen boxes in this subseries contain minutes, action sheets, correspondence, clippings, legislation, and other records
related to the activities of the larger Judiciary Committee and its individual subcommittees. However, due to their size and
scope, Internal Security Subcommittee records are located in a separate subseries. Although the files of the Judiciary Committee
subseries possess separate folders on subcommittees, researchers should realize that documents related to these subcommittees
will be found throughout general Judiciary Committee folders. Finally, immigration case files of the Immigration and Naturalization
Subcommittee are located in a separate subseries, although other material related to the Immigration and Naturalization Subcommittee
are available in the Judiciary Committee subseries.

Please note that the Center for Legislative Archives at the National Archives and Records Administration is responsible for
the official committee records of the U.S. Senate and will maintain a more comprehensive set of papers than will be found
in the Eastland Collection. By law, Congress retains ownership over committee records, and the Modern Political Archives has
returned any items in this Eastland Collection subseries identified as official committee records, maintaining photocopies
in their place.

Access Restrictions

By Senate rules, committee records are closed for twenty years and investigative records for fifty years. To abide by this
rule, the Modern Political Archives will permit researcher access to all files whose last dated material is older than fifty
years. Files related to investigations and confirmations will remain closed for fifty years; those not concerned with investigations
or confirmations are open. The Political Papers archivist will transfer restricted files that have passed the fifty-year mark
to open status once a year in January (i.e., in January 2015, researchers will have access to material in those files dated
1964 and earlier). As a consequence of these restrictions, researchers will not have access to several of the boxes in this
subseries – only the folders. The access status of each folder in this subseries is identified in the list below. The Modern
Political Archives has adopted a conservative approach and applied a 2028 open date for undated documents, not necessarily
because the content dates from 1977.

The Modern Political Archives identified a number of classified documents within this subseries during processing. Those documents
have been removed and sent to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISSO) of the National Archives and Records Administration
for declassification review. Their removal is documented within relevant files with a form. When declassified and returned,
the Modern Political Archives will replace said items in the appropriate file (ISSO has already returned a number of these
documents which will be marked as “declassified”).

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Subseries 10: Internal Security Subcommittee 

Scope and Content

The Internal Security Act of 1950 authorized the creation of the Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of
the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. A subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee, it was more
commonly referred to as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS). The purpose of the subcommittee was to study and
investigate (1) the administration, operation, and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950 and other laws relating
to espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States and (2) the extent, nature, and effects
of subversive activities in the United States “including, but not limited to, espionage, sabotage, and infiltration of persons
who are or may be under the domination of the foreign government or organization controlling the world Communist movement
or any movement seeking to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and violence.” Similar to the House Un-American
Activities Committee in its mission, the Internal Security Subcommittee had the power to subpoena witnesses and documents.

Senator James O. Eastland joined the subcommittee at its inception in 1951 and became chair in 1955. He remained chair until
the Senate abolished the subcommittee in 1977. Investigations during the 1950s focused on Soviet activity in the United States;
communist subversion in the federal government (particularly in the Department of State and the Department of Defense); U.S.
foreign policy in the Far East; and subversion in several industries (defense, telegraph, newspaper, television, radio, and
entertainment) and organizations (civil rights groups, labor unions and education); and immigration. By the 1960s and 1970s
the scope included illegal drugs, urban and campus riots, Latin America, and Cuba in particular.

The subseries consists of thirty-one boxes. Boxes 1 through 6 hold the administrative files of the subcommittee arranged chronologically
by year and subdivided into the following categories: administration, legislation, financial records, press releases, publications,
clippings, and personnel.

The subcommittee also maintained ongoing investigative files on subjects, organizations, and individuals. The contents of
these files were often accumulated over a period of twenty years or more. Some of the data contained within the files may
predate the formation of the committee. Content may include newspaper and journal clippings, intelligence reports from a variety
of agencies as well as subcommittee staff, correspondence, staff memoranda, subcommittee correspondence, transcripts of hearings,
and published subcommittee hearings and reports. Boxes 7 through 15 contain investigation files on individual people arranged
alphabetically. Not all the individuals listed were under investigation. Some could be informants, witnesses, or subjects
of queries from others outside the committee. The contents include publicly available information as well as data acquired
through investigations. Boxes 15 through 31 hold the investigation files on organizations and specific subjects. These files
are arranged alphabetically.

It is important to note that this arrangement has been imposed by the archives. Although some of the material arrived at the
repository in preexisting subcommittee files which the archives preserved, many other documents allocated to this subseries
were scattered throughout the papers in a disorganized state.

The separate Internal Security Subcommittee Library subseries provides a list of publications held in the library of the subcommittee
as well as any documents discovered within these volumes.

Please note that the Center for Legislative Archives at the National Archives and Records Administration is responsible for
the official committee records of the U.S. Senate and will maintain a more comprehensive set of the Internal Security Subcommittee’s
papers than will be found in the Eastland Collection. By law, Congress retains ownership over committee records, and the Modern
Political Archives has returned any items in this Eastland Collection subseries identified as official committee records,
maintaining photocopies in their place.

Access Restrictions

By Senate rules, committee records are closed for 20 years and investigative records for 50 years. Due to the heavily investigative
nature of the Internal Security Subcommittee, the Modern Political Archives will only permit researcher access to all files
whose last dated material is older than 50 years. However, researchers will have access to all files labeled “Clippings,”
“Financial Records,” “Legislation,” “Press Releases,” and “Publications,” regardless of age. The Political Papers archivist
will review all restricted files once a year in January to transfer documents that have passed the fifty-year mark from “closed”
to “open” files of the same name (i.e., in January 2015, researchers will have access to material in those files dated 1964
and earlier). As a consequence of these restrictions, researchers will not have access to many of the boxes in this subseries
– only the folders. The access status of each folder in this subseries is identified in the list below. The Modern Political
Archives has adopted a conservative approach and applied a 2028 open date for undated documents although the content may not
necessarily date from 1977.

The Modern Political Archives identified a number of classified documents within this subseries during processing. Those documents
have been removed and sent to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISSO) of the National Archives and Records Administration
for declassification review. Their removal is documented within relevant files with a form. When declassified and returned,
the Modern Political Archives will replace said items in the appropriate file (ISSO has already returned a number of these
documents which will be marked as “declassified”).

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Subseries 11: Internal Security Subcommittee Library 

Scope and Content

The U.S. Senate eliminated the Internal Security Subcommittee in 1977. In 1977-78, Senator James O. Eastland began transferring
his congressional papers to the University of Mississippi. Among the items shipped were publications from the subcommittee’s
library.

Due to storage space concerns and the wide availability of many titles, the volumes were not preserved in toto. However, this
subseries provides a complete bibliographic listing of the publications received as well as descriptions of stamps, inscriptions,
or enclosures. The archives did retain documents enclosed within the Internal Security Subcommittee’s library volumes and
these appear in Box 1 of this subseries. The bibliographic citation that follows will indicate the appropriate folder number.

Call numbers and links to catalog records are provided when copies of the books are in the stacks of the J.D. Williams Library
or Special Collections. Researchers should note that these are not necessarily the same copies that were in the Internal Security
Subcommittee library or even the same editions. If the publications were previously held by the Internal Security Subcommittee,
the library catalog record will note James O. Eastland’s name in the collector field.

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Subseries 12: Correspondence with Judges 

Scope and Content

As chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee, James O. Eastland often corresponded with federal and state judges (particularly
those from his home state of Mississippi). The two boxes in this subseries hold files organized alphabetically by the name
of the judge. Further correspondence with judges and other files on individual judges may appear elsewhere in the collection,
including the following subseries: Judiciary Committee; Patronage, Nominations, Employment, & School Recommendations; Issue
Correspondence; Clippings; and Internal Security Subcommittee.

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Subseries 13: Post Offices and Post Roads Committee 

Scope and Content

In 1944, Senator James O. Eastland received an appointment to the Post Offices and Post Roads Committee, and the Legislative
Reorganization Act of 1946 eliminated the committee. Records of this committee in the Eastland Collection are scant, although
researchers may locate documents and files related to the Post Office in the following subseries: Congressional Correspondence;
Federal Correspondence; Patronage, Nominations, Employment, and School References (for postmaster appointments throughout
Mississippi); Clippings; Press Releases; Issue Correspondence; State/Local Files; and Case Files.

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Subseries 14: Territories and Insular Affairs Committee 

Scope and Content

U.S. Senator James O. Eastland was a member of the Committee on Territories and Insular Affairs for a brief period from 1945
to 1946. The committee’s jurisdiction covered the various territories of the United States (Alaska, Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto
Rico, Samoa, and the Virgin Islands). The one box in this subseries holds a small amount of correspondence and transcripts
of two committee hearings.

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Subseries 15: Senate Democratic Policy Committee 

Scope and Content

The Senate Democratic Policy Committee serves as an advisory board for Democratic leadership in the Senate, providing research,
communications, and policy formulation. Senator James O. Eastland joined the committee as an ex officio member when he became
President Pro Tempore of the Senate in 1972. The one box in this subseries only holds copies of the “Senate Legislative Activity
Index” distributed periodically by the Senate Democratic Policy Committee.

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Subseries 16: Legislative Aide/Frank Barber 

Scope and Content

Raised in Hattiesburg and Laurel, Mississippi, Frank Barber worked on U.S. Senator James O. Eastland’s staff while attending
Law School at George Washington University where he received his degree in 1957. After passing the bar in both the District
of Columbia and Mississippi, he worked as counsel for the General Legislative Investigating Committee in Mississippi (1958-1959);
served in the Mississippi State Senate (1960-1964); held the post of executive assistant to the Governor Paul B. Johnson Jr.
(1964-1968); and acted as attorney for the Mississippi Agriculture and Industrial Board (1968-1972).

In 1972, Barber returned to Eastland’s staff as a legislative aide where he remained until the senator’s retirement in 1978.
Subsequently, he served as general counsel to Mississippi’s Contractors Board (1981-1989); Secretary of the Mississippi State
Senate (1989-1991); Special Assistant Attorney General for the State of Mississippi (1992-1994); and a judge on the Mississippi
Court of Appeals from 1995 until his death in 1997.

The one box in this subseries contains Barber’s correspondence from 1974 to 1978.

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Subseries 17: Legislative Aide/Bill Simpson 

Scope and Content

In 1968, William G. “Bill” Simpson joined U.S. Senator James O. Eastland’s staff as a legislative aide. Prior to that time,
Simpson served as a member and chair of the Mississippi Marine Conservation Commission; member of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries
Commission; president of the State Port Authority at Gulfport, Mississippi; and special assistant to Governor Paul B. Johnson
Jr.

Simpson graduated from St. Stanislaus in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, attended both Marion Military Institute and the University
of Mississippi before graduating from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in Kings Port, New York. During World War II, he served
in the U.S. Navy.

The one box in this subseries contains both personal and professional correspondence.

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Subseries 18: Legislative Aide/Sam Thompson 

Scope and Content

Born in Attala County, Mississippi, Sam Thompson grew up on farms in Tallahatchie, Quitman, and Sunflower counties. He began
farming in U.S. Senator James O. Eastland’s hometown of Ruleville in 1934 and bought a farm in Leflore County in 1938 producing
cotton, soybean, grain, and cattle. Thompson organized the Leflore County Soil Conservation District in 1946 and served on
its board for twenty-two years. He was Southeastern Area Vice President of the National Association of Soil Conservation Districts
for 1952-1953.

For fourteen years, Thompson served as a Delta field man for the Mississippi Farm Bureau. In 1953, the Bureau assigned him
to assist Eastland on the subject of acreage disputes in the West. Thompson joined the senator’s staff a year later as a legislative
aide. His responsibilities focused on agriculture and natural resources that involved the Department of Agriculture, the Department
of the Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the public works of the Corps of Engineers. At various times, Thompson
would serve as an employee of the Senate’s Agricultural and Forestry Committee.

In 1952, Thompson initiated the first water rights legislation in the state, chairing the Mississippi Interorganizational
Committee for Water Resources. He served continuously on the Mississippi Board of Water Commissioners from 1956 to 1978. In
1957, he called a meeting in Jackson of water officials from twelve southern states, leading to the organization of the Southern
Water Resources Conference which he chaired for five years. Thompson was also one of the organizers of the Interstate Conference
on Water Problems of the Council of State Governments, and he chaired the Water Resources Council during the year it began
to coordinate Federal Water Agency activities.

Recognized as one of the nation’s leading water and soil conservation authorities, Thompson addressed numerous local, state,
regional, and national groups interested in water resources and water rights. He also appeared before congressional committees
on these matters representing the state of Mississippi, the Delta Council, the Farm Bureau, and State Legislative Councils.
He initiated the idea that led to the establishment of loans for rural water associations and small communities to provide
potable water and sewage systems. Thompson also helped to develop disaster legislation that would provide financing for farmers
with crop losses due to floods, droughts, tornadoes, and other natural disasters.

The one box in this subseries contains personal papers and professional correspondence dating from 1955 to 1978 that expands
beyond Thompson’s work in the congressional office to include his broad activism in water and agriculture organizations. Researchers
will find more of his correspondence in the Agriculture Committee and State/Local Files subseries.

For more information on the man, see In Honor of Sam Thompson: A Lifetime of Dedicated Service to Mississippi Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Rural America [1978]. Call Number: S484 I54 1978.

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Subseries 19: President Pro Tempore 

Scope and Content

In 1972, the Senate elected Eastland as president pro tempore to fill the vacancy left by the death of Allen J. Ellender.
In the absence of the vice president, the Constitution provides for a president pro tempore to preside over the Senate. Since
World War II, tradition has dictated that the senior member of the majority party assumes the position.

The president pro tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, following the vice-president and the Speaker
of the House. Twice, Eastland ascended a notch in the succession — in 1973 when Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and again
in 1974 after President Richard M. Nixon’s resignation.

When the Democrats are in the majority, the president pro tempore is an ex officio member of that party’s leadership, attending
its conference, policy committee, and steering committee meetings. As president pro tempore, Eastland directed enforcement
of rules governing the use of the Capitol and Senate office buildings and made appointments to an assortment of national commissions
(usually acting upon the advice of the majority and minority leaders). During joint sessions of Congress, the president pro
tempore shares presiding duties with the Speaker of the House. Eastland retained the title of president pro tempore until
his retirement.

The single box in this subseries contains two large files of congratulatory letters Eastland received upon his election to
the post, followed by a chronological arrangement by year. Many of the documents concern appointments to national commissions.

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Series 5: Office Files 

Scope and Content

File Series 5 is comprised of five boxes holding an array of material related to the administration of U.S. Senator James
O. Eastland’s congressional office. These include extensive files related to furniture/equipment, office finances, and personnel.
Two files in Box 5 contain copies of telegrams sent by the office in 1976 -1977 as well as a computer-generated list of names
and contact information for an unknown purpose.

Researchers seeking further information on the administration of the congressional office and its staff should also consult
the following the subseries: Executive Secretary/Virginia Simmerman; Executive Secretary/Jean Allen; Mississippi Office/C.B.
Curlee and Wilburn Buckley; Administrative Assistant/Courtney C. Pace; Legislative Aide/Frank Barber; Legislative Aide/Bill
Simpson; and Legislative Aide/Sam Thompson.

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Series 6: Memorabilia 

Scope and Content

File Series 6 consists of memorabilia in an array of formats. Artifacts include pins; badges; rubber stamps from the senator’s
congressional office; pencils; presidential pens used in the signing of legislation; paperweights and desk flags; coin tokens;
gavels; boxes; license plates; ashtrays and other items associated with Eastland’s cigar smoking; and mugs as well as awards,
plaques, and certificates from various organizations. The subseries also contains items such as photographs and portraits
retained within their original frames (for preservation or exhibit purposes).

Arranged by format, artifacts are in Boxes 1 through 15. Box 16 primarily holds paper certificates; philatelic collectables
like cachet envelopes and first day covers; and commemorative coins and currency coins. Box 17 contains oversized certificates
and resolutions of commendation. The contents of Box 18 are miscellaneous oversized posters, art, and maps.

Framed items reside separately in Modern Political Archives Framed Storage. Also, several reproduction portrait images that
used to hang in Eastland’s congressional office are located in Modern Political Archives Map Case Drawer 2. Descriptions of
all these items appear at the end of the container list.

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